(CIT): The first day is focused on reviewing the current state of the art in natural language processing (NLP) issues and is hosted by NLM. The sessions will consider text in English, both in biomedicine and outside that domain, and discuss strategies that are innovative, principled, and hold significant promise (in robustness, generality, and accuracy) in the field. On the morning of the second day, activities sponsored by NLM to make specific proposals for NLP research will run in parallel with sessions hosted by NIBIB, which will address the promise and application of natural language processing in clinical decision support (CDS). The presentations will be given by a wide range of perspectives on the potential impact of natural language processing, including from the provider, vendor, patient, payer and government perspectives. The afternoon of the second day will be solely devoted to these topics.