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Application of Sleep Science and Circadian Biology to Clinical Medicine

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Air date: Wednesday, June 27, 2007, 3:00:00 PM
Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local
Views: Total views: 257 * This only includes stats from October 2011 and forward.
Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures
Runtime: 01:06:42
Description: Growing evidence indicates that chronic sleep loss aversely affects human health. Inadequate daily sleep, such as that experienced by shiftworkers and individuals with sleep disorders (i.e., insomnia or apnea) is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity, heart disease, and cancer. Furthermore, acute sleep loss profoundly impairs alertness, cognitive performance, and judgment, resulting in an increased risk of automobile- and work-related accidents. Defining the neural pathways and genetic basis of sleep-wake regulation is of critical importance for identifying individuals who are at risk of developing sleep and circadian disorders, as well for the development of countermeasures to treat the adverse consequences of sleep loss. In humans, the daily pattern of consolidated sleep and wake is determined by the interaction of two processes; the homeostatic buildup and dissipation of sleep pressure, and the circadian rhythm of sleep/wake propensity. The circadian period of sleep-wake behavior is genetically encoded by a transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop in neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the anterior hypothalamus, which determines the timing of the sleep-wake cycle relative to the solar day and morning vs. evening preference. The SCN temporally coordinates daily changes in behavior, physiology, and gene expression by synchronizing autonomous circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues. Determining the pathways and mechanisms by which the SCN resets the phase of peripheral clocks will provide insight into how the circadian timing system establishes the timing of diverse physiologic functions. Tissues such as the heart, lung and liver show circadian expression of thousands of genes, many of which are tissue specific and non-overlapping. Characterizing the specific functional role of sleep- and circadian-regulated genes in multiple organ systems will be critical for understanding the temporal dynamics and function of these tissues, and represents a significant opportunity for application of these findings to most, if not all, clinical specialties.

Charles A. Czeisler, Ph.D., M.D. is Baldino Professor of Sleep Medicine and the Director, Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School; and is an Affiliate Faculty Member in the Neuroscience Program at Harvard Medical School and the Health Science and Technology Program at Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is also Chief, Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.

Dr. Czeisler graduated magna cum laude with a degree in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Harvard College, where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1999. He received his Ph.D. in Neuro- and Bio-behavioral Sciences and his M.D. from Stanford University. He is a recipient of the Robert R.J. Hilker Award in Occupational Medicine (1991), Aschoff’s Rule (2001), the E.H. Ahrens, Jr. Lecture Award from the Association for Patient Oriented Research (2002), the William C. Dement Academic Achievement Award from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2002), the NIOSH Director’s Award for Scientific Leadership in Occupational Safety And Health (2005), the National Sleep Foundation 2006 Healthy Sleep Community Award (Harvard Work Hours and Health and Safety Group), and the 10th Annual J. Gerald Reves Duke Heart Center Lecture Award, from Duke Medical Center (2007). He is President of the Sleep Research Society Foundation, a Fellow of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and of the Association of American Physicians, and is a Diplomate of the American Board of Sleep Medicine.

The NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series includes weekly scientific talks by some of the top researchers in the biomedical sciences worldwide.
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NLM Title: Application of sleep science and circadian biology to clinical medicine / Charles Czeisler.
Author: Czeisler, Charles A.
National Institutes of Health (U.S.).
Publisher:
Abstract: (CIT): Growing evidence indicates that chronic sleep loss aversely affects human health. Inadequate daily sleep, such as that experienced by shiftworkers and individuals with sleep disorders (i.e., insomnia or apnea) is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity, heart disease, and cancer. Furthermore, acute sleep loss profoundly impairs alertness, cognitive performance, and judgment, resulting in an increased risk of automobile- and work-related accidents. Defining the neural pathways and genetic basis of sleep-wake regulation is of critical importance for identifying individuals who are at risk of developing sleep and circadian disorders, as well for the development of countermeasures to treat the adverse consequences of sleep loss. In humans, the daily pattern of consolidated sleep and wake is determined by the interaction of two processes; the homeostatic buildup and dissipation of sleep pressure, and the circadian rhythm of sleep/wake propensity. The circadian period of sleep-wake behavior is genetically encoded by a transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop in neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the anterior hypothalamus, which determines the timing of the sleep-wake cycle relative to the solar day and morning vs. evening preference. The SCN temporally coordinates daily changes in behavior, physiology, and gene expression by synchronizing autonomous circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues. Determining the pathways and mechanisms by which the SCN resets the phase of peripheral clocks will provide insight into how the circadian timing system establishes the timing of diverse physiologic functions. Tissues such as the heart, lung and liver show circadian expression of thousands of genes, many of which are tissue specific and non-overlapping. Characterizing the specific functional role of sleep- and circadian-regulated genes in multiple organ systems will be critical for understanding the temporal dynamics and function of these tissues, and represents a significant opportunity for application of these findings to most, if not all, clinical specialties.
Subjects: Circadian Rhythm--physiology
Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm--therapy
Publication Types: Lecture
Webcasts
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NLM Classification: WM 188
NLM ID: 101310968
CIT Live ID: 5206
Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?13920

 

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