||The NIH Director’s Pioneer Award program, launched in 2004 as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, supports exceptionally creative scientists who take highly innovative approaches to major challenges in biomedical research. First announced in Fiscal Year 2004, nine awards were made in September 2004, and 13 awards were made in 2005. The 13 investigators whose awards were announced in September 2005 describe their research progress in a series of presentations at the Second Annual NIH Director’s Pioneer Award Symposium. A poster session highlighting the work of the 2004 awardees will follow. The symposium also features the announcement of the 2006 Pioneer Award recipients.