Dr. Harold Varmus, NIH Director, introduces Leslie G. Ungerlieden, NIMH, as the speaker for the annual Joseph Leiter Lecture. Dr. Ungerleiden worked with Mort Mishkin before becoming Chief of the Laboratory of Brain and Cognition. Dr. Ungerlieden began measuring the hemodynamic changes in monkeys to determine how visual perception and visual memory occurred. The monkey has 30 functional visual areas. The areas of study were narrowed to object discrimination, the what?, in the ventral cortex and landmark discrimination, the where?, spacial recognition in the dorsal cortex. By using a PET scan, Dr. Ungerleiden and her colleagues applied the monkey studies to humans. They used matching stimuli and control stimuli to locate changes in the frontal lobe. They also explored the role of the fusiform gyrus. Of particular use were patients with prospagnosia, a failure to recongize faces. In addition, Dr. Ungereiden studied working memory, automatic timing versus experience and explicit memory retrieval. Dr. Ungerlieden took questions at the end of her lecture. The lecture was illustrated.