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Glutamate Excitotoxicity and Primary Cochlear Neurodegeneration After Noise

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Air date: Monday, April 9, 2018, 12:00:00 PM
Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local
Views: Total views: 72, (31 Live, 41 On-demand)
Category: Neuroscience
Runtime: 01:01:00
Description: Robert Wenthold Memorial Lecture; NIH Neuroscience Seminar Series

Noise-induced and age-related hearing losses are widespread health problems. They are the most common forms of hearing loss seen in adult patients, often co-existing in the same ears, and they are a primary focus of Dr. Kujawa’s research efforts. Her work seeks to clarify how normal inner ear structures and functions are altered by aging and by noise exposure, how vulnerability to these changes is shaped by an individual’s genetic background, and how these processes can be manipulated pharmacologically to reveal underlying mechanisms or for treatment or prevention.

An area of current focus in Dr. Kujawa’s laboratory is the aging of noise-exposed ears. She has discovered an insidious process that begins acutely after noise, as a loss of communications (synapses) between sensory inner hair cells and cochlear neurons. Loss of the neurons themselves follows slowly, but ultimately reaches the same magnitude. These effects of noise immediately and permanently change the way the ear processes sound information, and they occur even when the exposure produces only temporary changes in hearing thresholds; i.e., for exposures previously thought to be ‘safe’.

Moreover, she has shown that such exposures dramatically accelerate the gradual loss of cochlear synapses and cochlear neurons otherwise seen with aging alone. This work has provided the first clear evidence that noise exposure continues to have damaging effects on the ear and hearing long after the noise has stopped.

Ultimately, noise exposure should be regulated, and its consequences diagnosed and treated, in ways consistent with improved understanding of underlying processes and pathology. Thus, this work informs efforts to develop better clinical tests and to identify effective pharmacologic therapies for these common forms of hearing loss, and should guide hearing conservation efforts aimed at better protecting the public health. For more information go to https://neuroscience.nih.gov/neuroseries/Home.aspx
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NLM Title: Glutamate excitotoxicity and primary cochlear neurodegeneration after noise / Sharon Kujawa.
Author: Kujawa, Sharon.
Publisher:
Abstract: (CIT): Robert Wenthold Memorial Lecture; NIH Neuroscience Seminar Series. Noise-induced and age-related hearing losses are widespread health problems. They are the most common forms of hearing loss seen in adult patients, often co-existing in the same ears, and they are a primary focus of Dr. Kujawa's research efforts. Her work seeks to clarify how normal inner ear structures and functions are altered by aging and by noise exposure, how vulnerability to these changes is shaped by an individual's genetic background, and how these processes can be manipulated pharmacologically to reveal underlying mechanisms or for treatment or prevention. An area of current focus in Dr. Kujawa's laboratory is the aging of noise-exposed ears. She has discovered an insidious process that begins acutely after noise, as a loss of communications (synapses) between sensory inner hair cells and cochlear neurons. Loss of the neurons themselves follows slowly, but ultimately reaches the same magnitude. These effects of noise immediately and permanently change the way the ear processes sound information, and they occur even when the exposure produces only temporary changes in hearing thresholds; i.e., for exposures previously thought to be "safe". Moreover, she has shown that such exposures dramatically accelerate the gradual loss of cochlear synapses and cochlear neurons otherwise seen with aging alone. This work has provided the first clear evidence that noise exposure continues to have damaging effects on the ear and hearing long after the noise has stopped. Ultimately, noise exposure should be regulated, and its consequences diagnosed and treated, in ways consistent with improved understanding of underlying processes and pathology. Thus, this work informs efforts to develop better clinical tests and to identify effective pharmacologic therapies for these common forms of hearing loss, and should guide hearing conservation efforts aimed at better protecting the public health.
Subjects: Aging--physiology
Cochlea--physiopathology
Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner--pathology
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced--physiopathology
Neurons--pathology
Publication Types: Lectures
Webcasts
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NLM Classification: WV 270
NLM ID: 101726625
CIT Live ID: 24982
Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23803