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Brave new world: recent evolution of an insect-transmitted pathogen

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Air date: Wednesday, May 17, 2017, 3:00:00 PM
Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local
Views: Total views: 166, (80 Live, 86 On-demand)
Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures
Runtime: 00:57:13
Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series

Any population of organisms, be it made up of animals or plants, is susceptible to invasion by pathogens. Moreover, human-population migration, habitat simplification, and domestication of plants and animals have created novel ecological niches. Some pathogens are able to emerge into these niches and cause diseases that threaten public health and agricultural production. Despite the fact that such pathogens are common, there is often a lack of detailed studies that track their evolutionary origin and the effects of the population's ecological community structure on pathogen virulence, transmission, and epidemic persistence.

For his lecture, Dr. Kolter will discuss the studies his lab is carrying out to understand the evolution and ecology of a fatal bacterial wilt disease transmitted by the striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) and caused by the bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila. This bacterial wilt disease is an annual epidemic of cucurbit crop populations (squashes, cucumbers, etc.) that is geographically restricted to plants grown in the temperate zones of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. Dr. Kolter's laboratory results suggest that the pathogen evolved relatively recently, and the disease gained epidemic proportions as a consequence of Old World hypersusceptible cucurbits (cucumbers, melons) being introduced into North America and the unique ecology of the affected areas.

For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017
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NLM Title: Brave new world : recent evolution of an insect-transmitted pathogen / Roberto Kolter.
Author: Kolter, Roberto.
National Institutes of Health (U.S.),
Publisher:
Abstract: (CIT): NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Any population of organisms, be it made up of animals or plants, is susceptible to invasion by pathogens. Moreover, human-population migration, habitat simplification, and domestication of plants and animals have created novel ecological niches. Some pathogens are able to emerge into these niches and cause diseases that threaten public health and agricultural production. Despite the fact that such pathogens are common, there is often a lack of detailed studies that track their evolutionary origin and the effects of the population's ecological community structure on pathogen virulence, transmission, and epidemic persistence. For his lecture, Dr. Kolter will discuss the studies his lab is carrying out to understand the evolution and ecology of a fatal bacterial wilt disease transmitted by the striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) and caused by the bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila. This bacterial wilt disease is an annual epidemic of cucurbit crop populations (squashes, cucumbers, etc.) that is geographically restricted to plants grown in the temperate zones of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. Dr. Kolter's laboratory results suggest that the pathogen evolved relatively recently, and the disease gained epidemic proportions as a consequence of Old World hypersusceptible cucurbits (cucumbers, melons) being introduced into North America and the unique ecology of the affected areas.
Subjects: Beetles--pathogenicity
Biological Evolution
Cucurbitaceae--genetics
Cucurbitaceae--microbiology
Enterobacteriaceae Infections--epidemiology
Erwinia--pathogenicity
Geography
Publication Types: Lectures
Webcasts
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Caption Text: Download Caption File
NLM Classification: QW 138
NLM ID: 101706997
CIT Live ID: 23389
Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23291