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Intrinsic host defenses against HIV-1

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Air date: Wednesday, October 8, 2014, 3:00:00 PM
Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local
Views: Total views: 359, (108 Live, 251 On-demand)
Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures
Runtime: 01:06:04
Description: The Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series

The Annual George Khoury Lecture

The investigation of impeded viral replication in animal cells of particular types or species has uncovered great complexity in the interaction between retroviruses and their hosts. These studies have revealed that cells are equipped with a diverse set of proteins that can directly inhibit the replication of retroviruses, including HIV-1. Genes encoding antiretroviral proteins exhibit unusually high sequence variation, presumably because selection pressures exerted by ancient viral infections have caused them to evolve at an unusually rapid pace. The adaptation of modern retroviruses to specific variants of antiviral proteins has resulted in viral specialization to particular host species and the creation of formidable barriers to replication in other species. These phenomena likely protect humans from infection by some modern retroviruses, but have also impaired the development of animal models of HIV-1 infection.

In this lecture, Dr. Bieniasz will describe his studies of Tetherin, an antiviral protein that inhibits the release of diverse virus particles from infected cells and Mx2, an antiviral protein that apparently blocks the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus. Finally, he will describe his laboratory's attempts to break antiviral protein-imposed barriers to cross-species transmission of HIV-1 in order to generate better animal models of human AIDS

For more information go to http://wals.od.nih.gov
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NLM Title: Intrinsic host defenses against HIV-1 / Paul D. Bieniasz.
Author: Bieniasz, Paul D.
National Institutes of Health (U.S.),
Publisher:
Abstract: (CIT): The Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, The Annual George Khoury Lecture. The investigation of impeded viral replication in animal cells of particular types or species has uncovered great complexity in the interaction between retroviruses and their hosts. These studies have revealed that cells are equipped with a diverse set of proteins that can directly inhibit the replication of retroviruses, including HIV-1. Genes encoding antiretroviral proteins exhibit unusually high sequence variation, presumably because selection pressures exerted by ancient viral infections have caused them to evolve at an unusually rapid pace. The adaptation of modern retroviruses to specific variants of antiviral proteins has resulted in viral specialization to particular host species and the creation of formidable barriers to replication in other species. These phenomena likely protect humans from infection by some modern retroviruses, but have also impaired the development of animal models of HIV-1 infection. In this lecture, Dr. Bieniasz will describe his studies of Tetherin, an antiviral protein that inhibits the release of diverse virus particles from infected cells and Mx2, an antiviral protein that apparently blocks the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus. Finally, he will describe his laboratory's attempts to break antiviral protein-imposed barriers to cross-species transmission of HIV-1 in order to generate better animal models of human AIDS.
Subjects: GPI-Linked Proteins
HIV-1--physiology
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Virus Replication
Publication Types: Lecture
Webcasts
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Caption Text: Download Caption File
NLM Classification: QW 168.5.H6
NLM ID: 101645882
CIT Live ID: 14876
Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18665