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The Generation and Function of Single Cell Diversity in the Mammalian Brain

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Air date: Wednesday, April 24, 2013, 3:00:00 PM
Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local
Views: Total views: 350, (132 Live, 218 On-demand)
Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures
Runtime: 00:59:02
Description: Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series

The human brain contains over 85 billion neurons, each of which can engage in thousands of synaptic interactions. Correct neural circuit assembly during development requires interactions between cell surface proteins at the synapse as well as a mechanism that allows individual neurons to distinguish self from non-self. One mechanism to accomplish this ability to distinguish self from non-self is to generate sufficient cell surface diversity to provide individual cells with an identity “barcode.” In mammals this barcode appears to be provided by the clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) proteins. These cadherin-like proteins are encoded in three large contiguous gene clusters (a, b, and g) whose organization leads to the generation of enormous cell surface diversity through a mechanism that involves stochastic alternative promoter choice and alternative RNA splicing. Individual neurons can distinguish self from non-self when this diversity generator is coupled to a strict requirement for homophilic interactions. In this lecture, Dr. Maniatis will discuss the molecular mechanisms by which Pcdh diversity is generated; recent advances in understanding the nature of homophilic Pcdh protein interactions; and, the results of studies directed towards understanding the functions of Pcdh proteins through the analysis of Pcdh gene cluster deletions in the mouse.
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NLM Title: The generation and function of single cell diversity in the mammalian brain / Tom Maniatis.
Series: Wednesday afternoon lecture series
Author: Maniatis, Tom.
National Institutes of Health (U.S.),
Publisher:
Other Title(s): Wednesday afternoon lecture series
Abstract: (CIT): The human brain contains over 85 billion neurons, each of which can engage in thousands of synaptic interactions. Correct neural circuit assembly during development requires interactions between cell surface proteins at the synapse as well as a mechanism that allows individual neurons to distinguish self from non-self. One mechanism to accomplish this ability to distinguish self from non-self is to generate sufficient cell surface diversity to provide individual cells with an identity "barcode." In mammals this barcode appears to be provided by the clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) proteins. These cadherin-like proteins are encoded in three large contiguous gene clusters (a, b, and g) whose organization leads to the generation of enormous cell surface diversity through a mechanism that involves stochastic alternative promoter choice and alternative RNA splicing. Individual neurons can distinguish self from non-self when this diversity generator is coupled to a strict requirement for homophilic interactions. In this lecture, Dr. Maniatis will discuss the molecular mechanisms by which Pcdh diversity is generated; recent advances in understanding the nature of homophilic Pcdh protein interactions; and, the results of studies directed towards understanding the functions of Pcdh proteins through the analysis of Pcdh gene cluster deletions in the mouse.
Subjects: Alternative Splicing--genetics
Brain--metabolism
Cadherins--genetics
Cadherins--metabolism
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Publication Types: Lectures
Webcasts
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Caption Text: Download Caption File
NLM Classification: WL 300
NLM ID: 101607239
CIT Live ID: 12324
Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?17915