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Ca2+ Sensors for Exocytosis

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Air date: Monday, June 11, 2012, 12:00:00 PM
Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local
Views: Total views: 308, (27 Live, 281 On-demand)
Category: Neuroscience
Runtime: 01:05:57
Description: Neuroscience Seminar Series

Dr. Chapman research is focused on understanding the structure, function and dynamics of the exocytotic membrane "fusion machine" that mediates the release of neurotransmitters from neurons. These studies have begun to reveal insights into how the release machinery is regulated and thereby contributes to neuronal plasticity. Neuronal exocytosis is triggered by Ca2+ and occurs via the abrupt opening of a pre-assembled fusion pore. Subsequent dilation of the pore results in the complete fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Dr. Chapman is currently identifying and reconstituting the sequential protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that underlie excitation-secretion coupling. To delineate this pathway, his lab has primarily focused on the Ca2+-binding synaptic-vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, which appears to function as the Ca2+-sensor that regulates release. His work is also focused on components of the "SNARE-complex", which is thought to form the core of the fusion apparatus. The rapid kinetics of exocytosis (<1 ms) indicate that only a handful of molecular rearrangements occur to couple Ca2+-synaptotagmin to the opening of the fusion pore. His lab is using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, imaging, spectroscopic and genetic approaches to delineate the interactions/conformational changes that occur during this window of time. For more information go to http://neuroseries.info.nih.gov
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NLM Title: Ca2+ sensors for exocytosis [electronic resource] / Edwin Chapman.
Author: Chapman, Edwin.
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Publisher:
Abstract: (CIT): Neuroscience Seminar Series Dr. Chapman research is focused on understanding the structure, function and dynamics of the exocytotic membrane "fusion machine" that mediates the release of neurotransmitters from neurons. These studies have begun to reveal insights into how the release machinery is regulated and thereby contributes to neuronal plasticity. Neuronal exocytosis is triggered by Ca2+ and occurs via the abrupt opening of a pre-assembled fusion pore. Subsequent dilation of the pore results in the complete fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Dr. Chapman is currently identifying and reconstituting the sequential protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that underlie excitation-secretion coupling. To delineate this pathway, his lab has primarily focused on the Ca2+-binding synaptic-vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, which appears to function as the Ca2+-sensor that regulates release. His work is also focused on components of the "SNARE-complex", which is thought to form the core of the fusion apparatus. The rapid kinetics of exocytosis (<1 ms) indicate that only a handful of molecular rearrangements occur to couple Ca2+-synaptotagmin to the opening of the fusion pore. His lab is using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, imaging, spectroscopic and genetic approaches to delineate the interactions/conformational changes that occur during this window of time.
Subjects: Calcium--metabolism
Exocytosis--physiology
Neurons--physiology
Synaptotagmins--metabolism
Publication Types: Lectures
Webcasts
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Caption Text: Download Caption File
NLM Classification: QU 55.2
NLM ID: 101587420
CIT Live ID: 11162
Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?17308